In the fabrication of semiconductors, chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is an essential wafer-planarization process. For optimal CMP, it is crucial to monitor the texture of the polishing pad; this leads to homogenous planarization of wafers. Hence, we present a new interferometric approach for in situ evaluation of the CMP pad surface based on a common-path phase-shifting interferometry, with which a series of phase-modulated interference signals immune to external perturbation can be recorded. A nanoscopic surface topology can then be reconstructed to estimate surface roughness using the recorded interference images. The surface mapping performance of the proposed method was tested by retrieving a topology of a vibrating nanostructure in immersion, of which height profiles were consistent with the result from atomic force microscopy (AFM). The method was also validated by examining the surface of a used CMP pad in simulated conditions.